Bears Information We Should Know
Grizzly bears and black bears look different in several ways. Color and size cannot be used for identification because they vary greatly in both species. Look for a combination of the following characteristics.
Grizzly Bear ( Ursus arctos horribilis ) and Black Bear ( Ursus americanus )
The shoulder hump (muscles to assist digging roots) is usually much more pronounced on a grizzly bear than a black bear. The facial profile of a grizzly bear is more ‘concave’ than the ‘roman nose’ profile of a black bear. Grizzly bear front claws are as long as a human finger, while black bear claws are much shorter and more curved to assist in climbing. Grizzly bear ears are shorter and rounder than black bear ears.
Both black bears and grizzly bears are waking up from their long winter slumber and will be heading out of their dens in search of food. To keep bears wild and families safe, there are a few things people should know.
First, Washington is home to two species of bear: the grizzly bear and the black bear. While black bears are common, grizzly bears are exceptionally rare. Black bears can be found throughout Washington’s wooded areas, including rainforests, dry eastern-slope woodlands, neighborhood greenbelts, and pretty much anywhere they can find forested cover. Grizzly bears, on the other hand, are found only in two areas in Washington: the North Cascades and the Selkirk Ecosystems.
“A bear’s diet is made up of mostly wild plants and seeds. However, bears can start looking for food in all the wrong places, including porches, sheds, garages, garbage cans, barbecues, kennels, and bird feeders.”
Rich Beausoleil, bear and cougar specialist for the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, says we can safely co-exist with these animals and offers some tips:
- eliminate potential sources of easy food
- keep pet food indoors
- only feed bird seed in winter (when bears are less active)
- keep garbage indoors until just before the pick-up service arrives
- clean barbeque grills after they are used
“Bears that become food-conditioned become nuisances. Remember, a fed bear is a dead bear."
Being Bear Smart in Bear Country
At your home or ranch
- Do not leave human food outside where bears can find it.
- Store garbage indoors or in bear-resistant garbage cans and do not put garbage out until shortly before the pick-up service arrives.
- Keep barbecue grills clean and free from grease. Store them inside, if possible.
- Make sure that bird feeders, birdseed, suet, and hummingbird mixes are not accessible to a bear.
- Keep pets inside at night, if possible.
- Remember: If bears have gotten into your garbage or livestock feed, remove the attractant immediately. Repeated use of a site by bears is much harder to stop than a single instance.
At your campsite
- First: Be aware of your surroundings. Look at them from a bear’s perspective. Investigate your site before setting up camp, and then establish a clean camp that is free from odors.
- Avoid camping next to trails or streams as bears and other wildlife use these as travel routes.
- Avoid camping near natural bear food sources such as berries.
- The 100-yard rule: When not camping in a National Park or other areas with designated camping sites, locate your cook area and food cache at least 100 yards downwind from your tent.
- Never leave food unattended in your campsite unless it is properly stored.
- Do not bring food or odorous non-food items into your tent. This includes chocolate, candy, wrappers, toothpaste, perfume, deodorant, feminine hygiene products, insect repellent, and lip balm.
- Avoid canned foods with strong odors such as tuna.
- Place food in bear-resistant storage containers (available at some campgrounds) or store it in your vehicle.
- Where this is not possible, cache your food by placing it inside several layers of sealed plastic bags (to reduce odor) and a stuff sack (waterproof “dry bags” work well). Then hang it as described below.
- Remember to hang pots, utensils, cosmetics, used feminine hygiene products, toiletries, and any other odorous items with your food and garbage.
- Never cook or eat in your tent. Food smells may attract bears and other wildlife.
- Wash all dishes and cans immediately after eating. Remember the 100-yard rule: When not camping in a National Park or other areas with designated camping sites, wash the dishes and dump the dishwater at least 100 yards from your campsite.
- If possible, remove the clothing you wore while cooking before going to sleep. Store these clothes in your vehicle or with your food and garbage (see above).
- Never leave garbage unattended, unless it is properly stored.
- Do not bury your garbage. Animals will easily dig it up.
- Garbage should be deposited in bear-resistant garbage cans or stored in your vehicle until it can be dumped.
- Remember: “Pack it in, pack it out.” This includes ALL garbage (including biodegradable items such as fruit peels).
Hiking and horse packing
- Think ahead and be prepared. It is possible to avoid a bear confrontation by being knowledgeable and alert.
- Travel in a group and during daylight hours.
- Talk or sing songs as you walk, especially in dense brush where visibility is limited, near running water, or when the wind is in your face. Bears may feel threatened if surprised. Your voice will help a bear to identify you as human. If a bear hears you coming, it will usually avoid you.
- Keep dogs on a leash and under control. Dogs may fight with bears and lead them back to you.
- Never approach or feed a bear or any other wildlife.
- Consider carrying pepper spray as a bear deterrent. It may help in an encounter with a potentially aggressive bear.
Hunting and fishing
- Follow the guidelines for campers, hikers, and horse packers. Be alert at all times.
- If you kill a game animal, immediately field dress the animal and move the carcass at least 100 yards from the gut pile.
- If you must leave the carcass, hang it (in pieces if necessary) at least 15 feet from the ground. Leave the carcass where you can see it from a distance. When you return to the carcass, observe it with binoculars from a distance and make noise as you approach.
- If a bear has claimed the carcass, leave the area immediately and report the incident to the proper authorities.
- Don’t leave fish entrails on shorelines of lakes and streams. Sink entrails deep in water.
Encountering a bear
Bear attacks on humans are extremely rare. To help avoid one, know what to do if you encounter a bear. Here are tips on how to react if you see one:
- Give the bear a way to escape.
- Steer clear of bear cubs.
- Stay calm and do not run or make sudden movements.
- Back away slowly as you face the bear.
- Consider talking to it in a firm tone of voice to let it know you are a human.
- Avoid direct eye contact with the bear.
- If you are attacked, fight back using rocks, sticks, and hands to fend off the bear and shout/make noise.
The Department of Fish and Wildlife responds to bear and cougar sightings when there is a threat to public safety or property. If it is an emergency, dial 911.
If you encounter a bear or cougar problem, and it is not an emergency, contact the nearest Department of Fish and Wildlife office between the hours of 8 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. In King County, the number to call is (425)775-1311.
Source: Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife | Learn more about bears